Agent Orange (dioxin) and Porphyria Cutanea Tarda (PCT)


Other Toxic Chemicals Associated to

Porphyria Cutanea Tarda (PCT)

as well as  Military Service in Vietnam


Posted on:  06-27-05

REVISED ON: 06-28-05

REVISED ON: 06-29-05

REVISED ON: 07-08-05


I am a novice researcher on the involvement of the PCT family of disorders and dioxin/Vietnam.  The real experts for PCT are at the PCT Foundation located at  E-mail is


They are currently looking for volunteers for Porphozom research study.   Dr. Karl Anderson and Dr. Herbert Bonkovsky need volunteers for the study. Porphozym is recombinanant human porphobilinogen deaminase (rhPBGD), which is the enzyme that is deficient in AIP.  It is given intravenously for 48 hours in this study.  This protocol is done once per patient, and it is blinded until the trial is completed in all patients.  No one will know until then who received drug or placebo.  However, there will likely be future studies after this protocol is completed.


While our own US government/VA studies, have been less than objective with regard to anything for many reasons (to be discussed later). 


The Korean Agent Orange Impact study did look for significant statistical medical trends in Vietnam Veterans, regardless of which toxic chemical was involved (as well as dioxin associations), regardless of Military Occupational Specialty, and regardless of the form of ingestion to the exposures.


These results were released in 2003 after a cross epidemiological study of Korean Vietnam Veterans and Korean Non-Vietnam Veterans that began in 1995. (1)


The study focused on six major clinical areas:  Endocrinology, neurology, psychiatry, dermatology, cardiovascular medicine, and ophthalmology.  Painfully absent for our Veterans were pulmonary effects (obstructive airway issues) and birth defects; which is a shame in this study that had some integrity with its finding.


The differences in the prevalence of various medical diagnoses were assessed by Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel chi-square tests comparing the exposure levels of Vietnam veterans, adjusting for age.  Multiple logistic regression was performed to estimate the effect of "service in Vietnam" adjusting for age, smoking, alcohol, body mass index, education, and marital status.


The following family of  Porphyria Cutanea Tarda (PCT) disorders was found over 30 years after the war:


Under the title “Porphyrinuria” the following p-values were obtained.


When compared to Vietnam Veteran versus non-Vietnam Veteran.


Uroporphyrin - p-value = <0.0001

Coproporphyrin - p-value = 0.1628


Under “Results,” the Korean doctors stated Vietnam Veterans had a significantly higher increase in…  Uroporphyrin.


In addition stated,  “When exposure and outcomes were assessed retinopathy, anemia, and coproporphyrin were also statistically significant (p<0.05).



Under “Cell Function” the following p-values were obtained:


When compared to Vietnam Veteran versus non-Vietnam Veteran.


Plating Efficiency – p-value = <0.0077 (associated with heme production)

Mitogen Response – p-value = <0.0001



The PCT family of disorders is associated with many skin disorders.


Under “Dermatologic” the following p-values were obtained:


When compared to Vietnam Veteran versus non-Vietnam Veteran.


Chloracne – p-value = 0.1914

Hemangioma – p-value = 0.1777

Psoriasis – p-value = 0.1852

Eczema – p-value = <0.0001

Seborrheic dermatitis – p-value = 0.0004

Xerotic eczema – p-value = 0.0385

Neurodermatitis – p-value = 0.0073

Photosensitive dermatitis – p-value = 0.1082

Pruritus – p-value = 0.0739

Telangiectasis – p-value = 0.1788

Prurigo – p-value = 0.1163

Urticaria – p-value = 0.0614  



In a second Korean Study, the study found that overall it is suggestive that military service in Vietnam/and or Agent Orange exposures disturbs the immune-homeostasis resulting in dysregulaton of B and T cell activities. (2)


This is certainly verified by our immune system cancers, multiple myeloma, and lymphatic leukemia that are found by our own disingenuous government/VA studies.


Although it would be suggestive that any disturbances in the B and T cell activity related cancers or autoimmune diseases should now be considered for compensations.


This also was shown in a statistical increase in IgG1 antibodies as well as IgE antibodies.  While overall all IgG antibodies were up, only IgG1 was significant.  While I did a worst case tolerance analysis and it seemed to conclude that; given the tolerance factors IgG2 should have reached the significant factor also.


Also found were, significant issues in Red Blood Cell reduction issues, such as; Number of Cells, Hemoglobin, and Hematocrit.



Another study, of 115 Seveso, Italy residents, found that 84% had urine porphyrin patterns consistent with coproporphyrinuria or CHP Type A, with the greatest prevalence and degree of abnormality in residents from areas of highest contamination (3).


The Seveso, Italy dioxin accident has been characterized as a "National disaster."   The actual 2,4,5-T release was estimated to be 100 grams (3.52 oz) to 20 kg (44.09 lbs) of dioxin was released into the air along with the estimated only 3,000 kg (6,613.9 pounds) of chemical that was released.  The furthest contamination distance was 6 km (3.7 miles) to the south. (6)


This absolutely pales in comparison to just the Rockpile FSB minimum of 506,000 pounds within 4.8 miles.  (Not including the other firebase overlaps, the drift rates from the DMZ burm, tank spraying, tanker spraying, helicopter spraying, the additional toxic chemical poundage of Agents White and Blue.)


...although the porphyrinuria itself may be benign, an associated medical condition may be far from benign. (3)


The VA and the NAS/IOM seemed to treat this heme problem as some sort of nuisance disorder rather

than what it actually can produce:


Symptoms - Any combination of abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, constipation, seizures, headaches, difficulty concentrating, personality changes, weakness and aching in muscles and joints, unsteady gait, poor coordination, numbness/ tingling of arms and legs, retaining fluids, rapid heart rate, increased blood pressure, increased sweating, and intermittent fever.


The symptoms that result may involve any part of the nervous system (central, peripheral and autonomic) or just the skin.  When the heme-making pathway is disrupted in this way, the excess porphyrins which are no longer metabolized start to accumulate in certain body organs where they can have toxic effects.


While a secondary porphyrinuria or coprophyrinuria is a porphyrin abnormality that occurs secondarily to some other disease, which usually tests positive for some, but not all of the diagnostic markers associated with true porphyrias.


It should be noted that the Ranch Hand study itself found a linear dioxin dose response to the liver enzyme Gamma-Glutamyltranspepidase (GGT) increase. (7)


It should be noted this was found 25 years after the war was over and it had not resolved. 


It should be noted that the Ranch Hand scientists found this linear dioxin dose response association; then in a very biased conclusion concluded; this increase in GGT liver enzymes was not a problem of any kind.


It is also noted that I would doubt that any competent gastrointestinal doctor finding an increase in GGT in a patient that was a known toxic chemicals (plural) exposure victim would probably have not been as cavalier or callus as those government scientists who concluded for the Nation's Veterans on behalf of our government - this is not a real medical problem but lets not tell anyone anyway!


In fact, it was so not a medical issue that the government scientists discussed telling those members of the Ranch Hand study only; that they needed to tell their personal physicians and let them handle it.  It seems the rest of the 3.2 million of the Nation's Vietnam Veterans and their doctors were not entitled to know.


Skin issues can be mild or very serious:


The cutanious manifestations of CEP, PCT, and HEP (and VP and HCP) can be difficult to distinguish on the basis of clinical or histological appearance, although the lesions of the autosomal recessive conditions, CEP and HEP, are usually more severe. Cutanious manifestations include: skin fragility, vesiculobullous skin eruptions evolving into crusted ulcers, and residual hyperpigmentation or scarring, primarily occurring in sun-exposed areas of the body. Facial hypertrichosis is also common. The pattern of EPP differs substantially and is generally less severe than in the other cutanious porphyrias; it is characterized by acute photosensitivity manifesting as pain, pruritus, and erythema with exposure as short as minutes, and generally without vesiculobullous lesions or scarring unless sun exposure is prolonged. Liver injury is usually not found with the cutanious porphyrias other than in some patients with EPP, in which case it can be severe and potentially fatal. (3)


PCT is usually associated with some degree of liver abnormality. Liver function tests are nearly always abnormal to some degree. Moderate siderosis and various degrees of fibrosis or necrosis are often found upon biopsy, and cirrhosis develops in a small proportion of patients. It is common for PCT to develop in individuals with preexisting liver disease of a variety of types, particularly alcoholic liver disease or chronic hepatitis C. Patients with chronic liver disease also can develop mild or moderate degrees of porphyrinuria (increased urine porphyrins) in biochemical patterns that can be consistent with PCT but without associated cutanious lesions (see "Chronic Hepatic Porphyria") . Patients with PCT are reported to be at risk for developing hepatocellular carcinoma; conversely, some benign or malignant liver tumors can overproduce uroporphyrin and induce PCT. (3)


Looking at the Seveso, Italy dioxin accident study findings and remember from above there were 84% out of 115 that showed urine porphyrin patterns consistent with coproporphyrinuria or CHP Type A.  The following possible disorder sites that may be "logically associated" with the family of PCT disorders.


Bearing in mind from above the Koreans Agent Orange Impact study also found:


Uroporphyrin - p-value = <0.0001

Coproporphyrin - p-value = 0.1628

Plating Efficiency – p-value = <0.0077 (associated with heme production)


Seveso, Italy Cancers and Issues:


Hepatobiliary =  Risk Ratio was 2.4   95% Confidence Interval was 1.1-5.1

Liver              =  Risk Ratio was  2.0   95% Confidence Interval was 0.5-8.3

Billary tract   =   Risk Ratio was  3.0   95% Confidence Interval was 1.1-8.2

Thyroid          =  Risk Ratio was  2.1   95% Confidence Interval was 0.3-16.0       


(Hepatobiliary Cancer is a tumor that grows on or in the liver, bile ducts, and biliary tract.)


The study did point out that nerve damage in the form of neuropathy was about a three fold increase.


These are the issues I found that could be related to the family of PCT disorders.  Of course, there could have been more, such as lung or even brain; that I am not aware of the associations or possible associations to the various body sites. 


It also seems from researching this PCT family of issues involved with our Vietnam Veterans that it looks like this family of disorders can create an issue associated to cell plating and the liver.  Or it can be a response to other liver damages or biliary system damages which we also know are prevalent among Vietnam Veterans.


It was also interesting that the further you were away from the accident the less the Risk Ratio.  Which, in my mind, would indicate either a total threshold requirement or a dose rate implication.


One form of this disorder that one of my guys  found related to the PCT family of disorders is Hemochromatosis and the Uroporphyrin seemed to be tied together in some of these iron disorders.


The long-term effects of this disorder are many:  Hemochromatosis can damage the liver, heart, and endocrine organs (such as the pancreas).  This condition can also cause heart failure and diabetes, in addition to other endocrine problems such as lack of testosterone.  Also this can lead to joint problems.


Many of these symptoms are already associated to dioxin and increases in mortality to dioxin even by the government; so is the root cause?  I have no idea and obviously the government/VA and NAS/IOM does not want to know or want us to know.


He has many of the same issues many of us have and after giving blood one time he said he felt better than he had in years.  He researched this issue and came up with Hemochromatosis and I tend to agree with his finding and results.  As he continues to give blood he feels better.



In a court document the following was submitted in evidence by Doctor Cate Jenkins of the EPA: (8)


Many Vietnam veterans have experienced more than one of the adverse health effects associated with dioxin. Such a coincidence of injuries increases the probability that the common casual factor of the multiple injuries was dioxin rather than two or more coincidental factors. In addition, a variety of human population exposed to dioxin have experienced these health effects (Vietnam veterans, farmers, forestry workers, residential populations in Missouri and Italy, and chemical production workers in the U.S. and other countries), thus establishing a firm basis for concluding that dioxin, and not some other unique factor related to service in Vietnam, was responsible for these health effects. Further, many Vietnam veterans and other populations exposed to dioxin have experienced dose-related increased rates of these adverse health effects, proving strong epidemiologic evidence that the effects were caused by, not merely associated with, dioxin. In all cases, animals have experienced these same health effects when dioxin is administered in a controlled laboratory setting, thus providing a plausible biological basis for the health effects observed in humans.


The effects demonstrated by these new studies to be significantly associated with dioxin exposures include elevated cancers of all sites combined (representing a general carcinogenic effect of dioxin), as well as cancers of specific sites, namely: soft tissue sarcomas; non-Hodgkin's lymphoma; Hodgkin's disease; leukemias, lymphomas, and other hematologic cancers; respiratory system cancer; skin cancer; testicular cancer; and cancers of the brain, stomach, colon, rectum, prostate, hepatobiliary tract, pancreas, and kidney. One adverse effect in addition to cancer significantly associated with dioxin is organic nerve damage, including peripheral as well as central nervous system damage, and the severe consequences of central nervous system damage, such as suicide and fatal accidents, depression, anxiety, and other neuropsychological problems. Other adverse effects significantly associated with dioxin include reproductive abnormalities; immunological abnormalities; dermatologic abnormalities; hepatoxic effects; gastrointestinal ulcer; cardiovascular disorders; metabolic disorders such as porphyria cutanea tarda, thyroid dysfunction, diabetes, and altered lipid metabolism; and lung and thorax abnormalities.


In 1984, the CDC reported on a case of porphyria cutanea tarda in a truck driver who worked at a truck terminal sprayed with dioxin-contaminated oil to control dust in Times Beach, Missouri. <36> The connection to dioxin was further established by the fact that the worker also had a sarcoma, later identified as a soft tissue sarcoma, as well as being diagnosed as having chloracne. In 1991, a jury awarded the widow of this worker $1.5 million in damages against Syntex Agribusiness and others who had supplied the dioxin-contaminated road oil.

This all sounds familiar to our Vietnam Veterans and/or their widows and very possibly should have been considered precursors to what the Vietnam Veteran would develop and/or die at an early age from the underlying issues. 

But then our government is not noted for truth when it comes to its used up obsolete government assets, the Veterans.  The Veterans that the former Secretary of State Henry Kissinger concluded the following: 

"Military men are dumb, stupid animals to be used as pawns for foreign policy." (4)



 Other forms of toxic chemicals used in herbicides widely used in

Vietnam outside of 2,4, 5-T (Dioxin)


Cacodylic acid (dimethyl arsenic acid)







Cacodylic acid (dimethyl arsenic acid)


Agent Blue: This was a code name for cacodylic acid (dimethyl arsenic acid) that was used from 1965 to 1970. 


Agent Blue produces a spectrum of acute toxic symptoms that includes gastrointestinal disorders, eye irritation, and dermatitis.  Studies in experimental systems have indicated that it has the potential for mutagenicity, clastogenicity (chromosome damages), and teratogenicity.


Carcinogenicity has not been tested adequately, but it should be noted that other inorganic arsenic compounds have been associated with liver, lung, skin, and stomach cancers.


It is highly toxic by inhalation, ingestion and through skin contact.  It may cause irreversible effects and death.  It may act as a teratogen or carcinogen; or skin, eye and respiratory irritant.


Symptoms include:


Garlic type odor of breath and feces, and metallic taste in the mouth.


Adverse GI effects predominate with vomiting, abdominal pain and rice-water, or bloody diarrhea.


GI effects may also include inflammation, vesicle formation, and eventual sloughing of the mucosa in the mouth, pharynx, and esophagus.


Central nervous system effects that are common include: headache, dizziness, drowsiness, and confusion.


Symptoms may progress to include muscle weakness, spasms, hypothermia, lethargy, delirium, coma, and convulsions.


Renal injury manifests as proteinuria, hematuria, glycosuria, oliguria, and shows up in the urine.  In severe poisoning cases, acute tubular necrosis results.


Cardiovascular effects include shock, cyanosis, and cardiac arrhythmia.


Elevated liver enzymes and jaundice may manifest causing liver damage.


Injury to blood-forming tissues may cause anemia, leucopenia, and thrombocytopenia.



Chronic exposure may lead to:


Muscle weakness, fatigue, anorexia, weight loss.


Hyperpigmentation, hyperkeratosis.


Peripheral neuropathy, paresthesia, paresis, and ataxia.


Inability to coordinate voluntary muscular movements.


Subcutaneous edema in face, eyelids, and ankles.


Stomatitis, white striations across the nails (Mees lines) and sometimes loss of nails or hair.


Liver toxicity as indicated by hepatomegaly, jaundice, and cirrhosis.


Renal toxicity leading to oliguria, proteinuria, and hematuria.


EKG abnormalities and peripheral vascular disease.


Hematologic abnormalities.







“Hexachlorobenzene tends to remain in the environment for a long time.  If it is released to the soil, it has a half-life of 3-6 years.  This means that half of the total amount will disappear after 3-6 years, half of the remaining amount will disappear in another 3-6 years, and this process will continue each 3-6 years thereafter.  If it is released to surface waters such as lakes, rivers, and streams, the half-life is 2.7-5.7 years, and if it is released to groundwater, the half-life is 5.3-11.4 years. 


Since Hexachlorobenzene does not dissolve in water very well, most of it will remain in particles on the bottom of lakes, rivers, or streams.  The evaporation of Hexachlorobenzene into the air is not significant under ordinary conditions.  Once in the air, it can be carried over wide geographic areas.  Its half-life in air ranges from 0.63 to 6.28 years. 


Hexachlorobenzene can enter your body when you eat food contaminated with it, when you breathe particles of it in the air, or when it gets on your skin.  After it enters your body, it rapidly spreads through your blood to many tissues in the body, especially to fat.  This probably happens within a few hours.  Based on the results of a survey of this substance in people's tissues, it will remain in your body, especially in fat, for years.


People in Turkey who, over a long time, ate grain that was accidentally contaminated with Hexachlorobenzene suffered from a liver disease called porphyria cutanea tarda.


The main effect of porphyria is slowed or stopped formation of heme, the oxygen-carrying part of the hemoglobin molecule found in red blood cells and an important chemical in the body.  Porphyria is identified by elevation of heme precursors called porphyrins in the blood, urine, and stool.  This disease can cause red-colored urine, skin sores, change in skin color, arthritis, and problems of the liver, nervous system, and stomach. 


Studies using animals show that eating food laced Hexachlorobenzene for a long time can harm the liver, thyroid, and nervous systems.  The studies using animals also show that eating Hexachlorobenzene for months or years can damage bones, kidneys, and blood, and the immune, endocrine (hormone-releasing), and nervous systems. 


Unborn children and young children may be more sensitive to these effects than adults.


Animal studies support the suggestion that young animals exposed to Hexachlorobenzene before and soon after birth are especially sensitive to Hexachlorobenzene.  Effects on the liver, nervous system, and immune function occurred at lower doses in the young developing animals than in adults. 


Animal studies also showed that Hexachlorobenzene has effects on various endocrine organs, including the thyroid gland (hypothyroidism), parathyroid gland (hyperparathyroidism), adrenal gland, and ovaries.  These tissues produce hormones that are important to normal growth and development of the organism.”





“Pentachlorphenol uncouples oxidative phosphorylation processes thus increasing the metabolic rate and causing hyperpyrexia.  Early signs and symptoms are:


Nausea, fatigue, unusual and excessive sweating, and thirst.  Insomnia, oliguria, and loss of body weight (dehydration) may occur in more protracted cases.  Anxiety and restlessness, increased rate and depth of respiration, palpitations, tachycardia, fever, and eventually convulsions and coma may occur in more severe cases.  Laboratory examination may reveal a rise in white blood cells and hypoglycemia.


Some, but not all of the harmful effects associated with exposure to pentachlorophenol are due to impurities present in commercial pentachlorophenol. 


Short exposures to large amounts of pentachlorophenol in the workplace, or through misuse of products that contain it can cause harmful effects on the liver, kidneys, blood, lungs, nervous system, immune system, and gastrointestinal tract. 


**If large enough amounts enter the body, heat is produced by the cells in the body, causing an increase in body temperature.  The body temperature can increase to dangerous levels, causing injury to various organs, tissues, and even death.  This effect is the result of exposure to pentachlorophenol itself and not the impurities.” 


Long-term exposure to low levels such as those that occur in the workplace can cause damage to the liver, kidneys, blood, and nervous system.  Studies in animals also suggest that the endocrine system and immune system can also be damaged from long-term exposure to low levels of pentachlorophenol.  All of these effects get worse as the level of exposure increases.


The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has determined that pentachlorophenol is possibly carcinogenic to humans, and the EPA has classified pentachlorophenol as a probable human carcinogen.


The immune systems were suppressed in family members, including children as young as 8 years old, who were exposed to pentachlorophenol while living in log homes.”



**Along the DMZ, there were high incidences of what was called “fevers of unknown origin,” especially with our ground troops.  Pentachlorphenol is known to be dangerous through skin contact.  These men would be evacuated with sudden very high fevers and weakness.  No cause was ever established or at least one was never given for these anomalies.  If it had been malaria or viral infections, that would have been discovered from a simple diagnosis.




“Nitrosamines are another type of carcinogenic chemicals that are known to cause cancers and other medical problems.


Exposure to high concentrations of nitrosamines is associated with increased mortality from cancers of the esophagus, oral cavity, and pharynx.  When used in pesticides or herbicides it may cause DNA damage and cell death.”





Picloram is carcinogenic.  The EPA suggests that it is most toxic in drinking water or in any moist environment.  The EPA states the following medical issues with this chemical from acute exposure:


Damage to central nervous system, weakness, diarrhea, and weight loss.


Even with these findings, our government continues to deny compensation claims to those veteran’s suffering central nervous system (brain and spinal chord) disorders.


Chronic exposure to Picloram has the potential to cause the following health effects from long-term exposures.  Liver damage.


Liver damage as a medical term sounds simplistic but “liver damage” can mean many things that can lead to many debilitating autoimmune and fatal diseases, including cancers from the damaged immune system.





2,4-D going back to 1949 is noted for central nervous system damage as well as liver damages.


One noted toxicologist 1990 Doctor Daniel Teitelbaum made the statement in 1990: (5)


“What I do think...may bear on the Agent Orange issue, is the fact that in review of Dow’s 2,4-D documentation I found that there are significant concentrations of potentially carcinogenic materials present in 2,4-D which have never been made known to the EPA, FDA, or to any other agency.  Thus, in addition to the problem of the TCDD which, more likely than not, was present in the 2,4,5--T component of Agent Orange, the finding of other dioxins and closely related furans and xanthones in the 2,4--D formulation was of compelling interest to me.”


Talk about synergy or an amplifying effect!!!!!!!


Also bearing in mind that every US government/VA Agent Orange study was constrained by finding a linear dioxin response only (a single component of the toxic herbicide), every study was for those soldiers that were primarily exposed by skin contact only, and every study cohort was *like Veterans not toxic chemical clean Veterans.


*The Ranch Hand study used those in the Air Force herbicide program called Ranch Hand.  Their comparison cohort group was also Vietnam Veterans who somehow presumptively escaped toxic chemical exposures.


When I asked the NAS/IOM about this they stated they could tell by the tissue samples taken and the residual dioxin residing attached to the fat cells.


So obviously, the study is for dioxin only, which is a far cry from the Vietnam Toxic Chemicals (plural) experience.


Now in looking at the facts when the Ranch Hand study was started in 1982 there were no methods for evaluating residual dioxin attached to the fat cells.  That was not developed until 1987.  OOPS!  So much for the NAS/IOM answer!


So what the government/VA was going to evaluate is suspect at best.


The VA Army Chemical Corps study compared those that sprayed the chemicals in Vietnam versus those that sprayed the chemicals in other parts of the world.


What this was to prove is beyond me.


Unless the comparison was made to the same types of chemicals, same number of gallons sprayed, same number of days exposed, to include manufactures that made the chemicals as they were not all exactly alike, with or without protective clothing outside of a combat area, and on and on.


In fact, before the study started it was recommended they use a comparison cohort that was deemed "clean of toxic chemicals."  This of course was not done for what I think are obvious reasons.


I have seen it referenced by doctors that the VA included PCT in the list of associated disorders to dioxin.  While that statement is somewhat true, it is not exactly.


The medically astute Secretary of the VA along with the government contracted NAS/IOM have concluded in 1993 that this only applies to one year after Vietnam and totally resolved (cured) within two years.


Somehow, they have medically and magically ascertained that every Veteran that served in Vietnam would have reached the "total dose threshold" or some "magical dose rate" of "dioxin alone" to achieve a recognized and diagnosed manifestation of PCT within one year of leaving Vietnam.  Including that, once diagnosed, that a total resolving of the disorder or cure would be obtained in less than two years.


All of this established with regard to specifically dioxin.  Of which no one today can say how it does what it does or where it does it; or any form of threshold or dose rate that correlates to anything.


Regarding threshold, The  EPA states; there may not be a threshold for some medical disorders and that an autoimmune disorder is about 100 times less threshold than that of a cancer.  Yet, we have no autoimmune disorders on our associated list.


In fact, the EPA states that what they thought they knew 20 years ago is now much more complex than they thought and rather than a cell binding it is also actually changing cell DNA.


Never mind the liver issues highlighted in red above that can be developed from the other listed toxic chemical exposures.




The above reference evidence of facts and discussion:


Proves that PCT and this entire family of heme/liver disorders as well as cell plating issues, the symptoms that are created, and the systemic body damages associated that is created; are "more likely as not" associated to dioxin, and/or the combination of toxic chemical exposures, and/or Military Service in Vietnam; regardless of cause.


Proves that the VA and the NAS/IOM conclusions that every Veteran serving in the Republic of Vietnam would have reached some pronounced magic dose rate or threshold to manifest within one year and be cured within two years is not factual!


Proves that the government studies and NAS/IOM conclusions of skin exposure only; does not adequately represent the scientific facts and the toxic chemical exposures in wartime service in Vietnam.


Proves that other toxic chemicals may also be involved and the primary cause, outside of dioxin.


Proves that other toxic chemicals in combination with dioxin, may be the cause of the medical issues.


Proves that this liver/cell plating microbiological process disorder is not to be taken as lightly as the VA and the NAS/IOM seem to indicate and medically demanded by their "VA only" law.


Proves that "chloracne" shall not be "the only skin manifestations/symptoms" as a result of the systemic body damages created by this family of toxic chemical caused biological disorders.


Proves that an exposure victim may have long term permanent damages from clinical or sub-clinical chronic long-term damaging process from these toxic chemical exposures specifically related to this family of PCT disorders.


Proves that these long term permanent damages from clinical or sub-clinical chronic long-term damaging process from these toxic chemical exposures, specifically related to this family of PCT disorders, can create and be associated to end-stage diseases or end-stage systemic disorders.



Safe to say these government/VA studies are questionable as to what was their original intent: 


To find medical issues associated with dioxin and/or service in Vietnam; or government exoneration.


After 40 years, I think we Veterans and our widows know the answer.




(1) Impact of Agent Orange Exposure among Korean Vietnam Veterans, accepted May 28, 2003.


(2) Immunotoxicological Effects of Agent Orange Exposures to the Vietnam War Korean Veterans accepted May 28, 2003.


(3) Environmental Chemical Exposures and Disturbances of Heme Synthesis; Environmental Health Perspectives 105, Supplement 1, February 1997


(4) See "Kiss the Boys Goodbye - by Stevenson & Stevenson p97 (Futura 1990). ("Military men are dumb, stupid animals to be used as pawns for foreign policy," Kissinger told Washington Post reporters Woodward and Bernstein.)


(5) Letter from Daniel Teitelbaum, M.D., P.C. to Admiral E.R. Zumwalt, Jr. (April 18, 1990).


(6) Sort-Long Term Morbidity and Mortality in the Population Exposed to Dioxin after the "Seveso Accident - Industrial Health 2003, 41 127-138


(7) Ranch Hand Official Transcripts (Not the government redacted published reports)


Plaintiffs, CV-89-03361 (E.D.N.Y.) (JBW) v. [B-89-0059-CA (E.D.TEX.)] DIAMOND SHAMROCK CHEMICALS COMPANY, et al. SEP 3, 1991




Charles Kelley

DMZ Veteran 67-68


2078 Eastwood Drive

Snellville, GA 30078